Cybersecurity in PACS and Medical Imaging: an Overview

Eichelberg, Marco and Kleber, Klaus and Kämmerer, Marc
Journal of Digital Imaging
This article provides an overview on the literature published on the topic of cybersecurity for PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems) and medical imaging. From a practical perspective, PACS specific security measures must be implemented together with the measures applicable to the IT infrastructure as a whole, in order to prevent incidents such as PACS systems exposed to access from the Internet. Therefore, the article first offers an overview of the physical, technical and organizational mitigation measures that are proposed in literature on cybersecurity in healthcare information technology in general, followed by an overview on publications discussing specific cybersecurity topics that apply to PACS and medical imaging and present the “building blocks” for a secure PACS environment available in the literature. These include image de-identification, transport security, the selective encryption of the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) header, encrypted DICOM files, digital signatures and watermarking techniques. The article concludes with a discussion of gaps in the body of published literature and a summary.
Medical Image Communication Standardisation