@articlemti3010015, Author = {Cobus, Vanessa and Heuten, Wilko}, Title = {To Beep or Not to Beep? Evaluating Modalities for Multimodal ICU Alarms}, Journal = {Multimodal Technologies and Interaction; Special Issue: Multimodal Medical Alarms}, Year = {2019}, Editor = {MDPI}, Isbn = {2414-4088}, Doi = {10.3390/mti3010015}, Url = {http://www.mdpi.com/2414-4088/3/1/15}, type = {article}, Abstract = {Technology plays a prominent role in intensive care units (ICU), with a variety of sensors monitoring both patients and devices. A serious problem exists, however, that can reduce the sensors\’ effectiveness. When important values exceed or fall below a certain threshold or sensors lose their signal, up to 350 alarms per patient a day are issued. These frequent alarms are audible in several locations on the ICU, resulting in a massive cognitive load for ICU nurses, as they must evaluate and acknowledge each alarm. \“Alarm fatigue\” sets in, a desensitization and delayed response time for alarms that can have severe consequences for patients and nurses. To counteract the acoustic load on ICUs, we designed and evaluated personal multimodal alarms for a wearable alarm system (WAS). The result was a lower response time and higher ratings on suitability and feasibility, as well as a lower annoyance level, compared to acoustic alarms. We find that multimodal alarms are a promising new approach to alert ICU nurses, reduce cognitive load, and avoid alarm fatigue.} @COMMENTBibtex file generated on